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Musculoskeletal System




The musculoskeletal system plays an important role in the body, providing movement and stability. Muscles produce force to move and support various body parts, while bones provide a framework for muscles and protect vital organs. Tendons connect muscle to bone, allowing them to work together to produce movement and provide stability. Ligaments connect bone to bone, connecting one part of the skeleton to another and providing extra support and stability. The musculoskeletal system also works together with other body systems, such as the cardiovascular and nervous systems, to provide movement and coordination. By working together, these various body systems provide form, strength, and protection for the body as a whole. Without the musculoskeletal system, our bodies would be unable to move and function properly.

Bones can be classified according to shape. Long bones, aka Tubular, are longer than they are wide, and include the femur in the thigh, tibia and fibula in the lower leg, humerus in the arm, and metacarpals in the hand. Short bones, aka Cuboidal, are roughly cube-shaped and include wrist bones called carpals. Flat bones, such as the shoulder blade and ribs, are thin and often curved. Irregular bones have a variety of shapes that do not fit into any other category and include vertebrae in the backbone, facial bones, and some hip bones.

In addition to bones, the musculoskeletal system also includes sesamoid bones, which are small and shaped like sesame seeds and found within tendons. The most common sesamoid bone is the patella in the knee joint.

Cartilage and joints provide cushioning, flexibility, and stability to the musculoskeletal system. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue composed of chondrocytes, collagen, and glycosylated proteins called proteoglycans. Depending on its type, cartilage can be found in various parts of the body, such as the ends of bones, discs between vertebrae in the spinal column, and the nasal septum. Joints form the connection between two or more parts of the skeleton and are classified according to their type of connective tissue at the articulating surfaces; these include fibrous joints such as syndesmoses and sutures, cartilaginous joints such as synchondroses and symphyses, and synovial joints which provide the greatest range of motion.

Together, bones, cartilage, and joints form the musculoskeletal system and are essential for movement and providing structure, stability, and protection to the body.

The human skeleton has two parts, the axial and appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, hyoid and cervical spine (neck), ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum. It is responsible for protecting vital organs such as the brain and heart. The appendicular skeleton includes the shoulder girdle skeleton. The axial skeleton is made up of the skull, hyoid and, cervical spine, pelvic gird, neck, and extremities ribs, which are stern responsible for providing locomotion vertebrae and sacrum. The appendicular skeleton includes the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, and extremities, which provide movement and stability. Muscles attach to bones directly or through tendons which help produce force for movement. Ligaments connect bone to bone to provide extra support and stability. The musculoskeletal system works with other body systems, such as the cardiovascular and nervous systems, to provide movement and coordination. By working together, these various body systems provide form, strength, and protection for the body as a whole. Without the musculoskeletal system, our bodies would be unable to move and function properly.

References:

1. Cooper, R.L., Groh II, M.M., & Hudak, P. (2020). The Musculoskeletal System in Health and Disease. In J.C. Moore (Ed.), Essentials of Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered States (4th ed.).

2. Musculoskeletal System (2018). Retrieved from https://www.health



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